Instrumental physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is a set of methods for treating different diseases with physical factors which makes it possible to reduce the amount of medicines a patient takes and, in some cases, to refuse them absolutely. As a rule, physical factors are accepted by the organism favourably and help achieve maximum effect in the treatment of many diseases, reduce the risk of adverse reactions, recover from pathologies or increase the time of remission between recurrences; physiotherapeutic methods are also used for prevention purposes.

If the approach is professional, the prescription is correct and the patient follows the recommendations of the physician, the use of physiotherapeutic methods is absolutely safe. Influencing with natural factors physiologically has almost no negative effects, is pleasant and effective. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) is staying and breathing in oxygen under high pressure in a pressure chamber. It is used for therapeutic purposes and also called oxygen barotherapy. Сthe remedial effect of HBO is that physical oxygenation of tissues (blood, lymph, extracellular fluids) considerably promotes its supply to organs and cells. This eliminates general and local oxygen deficiency caused by the disease. The HBO method is the only method that helps increase the degree of oxygen in blood manifold and, consequently, considerably increase its supply to organs and tissues that suffer from its deficiency due to the disease. This effect is explained very easily. A pressure chamber is a closed vessel supplied with clear medical oxygen under pressure. A person stays in this atmosphere for 40 minutes. It is an average duration of a procedure. During this time the blood is actively saturated with oxygen, and the red cells distribute it to all organs and tissues. Our organs often suffer from chronic deficiency of oxygen. This is related both with hypodynamia of the person and different diseases; with spasms of blood vessel that gradually become narrow year by year and supply tissues with oxygen less well. So, this intensive oxygen therapy literally revives metabolic processes; self-regulation of the organism begins. Note that it does not require any interference in its activity. It is a very physiological and effective method of treatment. It takes only 6-8 procedures for our patients to feel fresh, their mood and sleep improves, blood pressure and pulse rate normalize, physical activity increases, and our diagnosticians observe better tolerance towards physical load. In patients with fractures bones get fused together better. Biochemical and functional indicators in patients with hepatitis, cirrhosis, after infarctions, strokes and other diseases improve. If a person has a trauma, wound that cannot heal for a long time, their state improves after several sessions in a pressure chamber and, as a rule, wounds skin over. Individual adaptation of an organism to the changes in the gas content of the inhaled air is one of the most ancient though most important problems of medicine and biology. The use of hypoxic stimulation of non-specific resistance of an organism is based on the cross adaptation concept when immunity to one extreme factor improves the immunity of an organism to a whole range of different influencing factors. Our organism keeps genetic memory about the life in a low oxygen environment and, if required, can comparatively easily adapt to hypoxia. After birth defense mechanisms gradually disappear as there is much more oxygen in our environment than inside the uterine and a child does not have to fight for it any more. Interval normobaric hypoxic training consists of the following four items:
  • “normobaric” means that the training is performed under normal atmospheric pressure of 730—760 mm Hg
  • “hypoxic” means that during a training session the patient inhales air with low oxygen content (16—9% depending on the physician’s prescription)
  • “interval” means that the hypoxic gas mixture is inhaled not continuously but with intervals when the patient breathes in normal air containing 20.9 % of oxygen (i.e. there are time-limited normoxic intervals between hypoxic effects the duration of which is approximately the same as that of hypoxic effects);
  • “training” means a process during which compensatory mechanisms of an organism are trained: physiological, biochemical systems that compensate for hypoxia, external respiration organs, blood circulation, blood formation, biochemical mechanisms of oxygen transfer and utilization in tissues and mitochondria.
Interval normobaric hypoxytherapy is a more effective and physiological, technically and economically affordable method that assures better tolerance towards different environmental factors compared to hypoxia developed in the mountains and pressure chambers. Moreover, an important advantage of normobaric hypoxia is an opportunity to individually select modes (a link about the modes) and strictly dose the hypoxic effect. Interval normobaric hypoxytherapy is considered to be a new technology, equal to state-of-the-art pharmaceutical medicines in many cases and has no adverse properties that are common in many medicines. The method totally excludes such unfavourable factors of a mountain climate as high humidity, low atmospheric pressure, seasonal temperature fluctuations, intensive solar radiation and other. GameReady® system with ACCEL® technology makes it possible for medical specialists to accelerate natural remedial processes of an organism setting a new standard of rehabilitation after injuries and surgeries. Immobilization, cold and compression have been used in therapy of not only acute but also chronic impairments, as well as in early rehabilitation after orthopedic surgeries for a long time. Conventional cooling packages and static devices for compression are not comfortable for use especially under field conditions and in such areas as a shoulder, breast, knees, etc. GameReady® mobile system of local cryotherapy solved this problem. Developed by scientists and physicians based on NASA space technology, local GameReady® cryotherapy device simultaneously performs controlled cryotherapy (temperature-controlled) and pulsing compression by means of bandages that can be conveniently fixed on different parts of the body. Investigations show that cold therapy reduces pain, spasms and tumours of soft tissues, risk of possible tissue injuries. Immobilization creates conditions required to initiate reparative processes. Impulse compression excludes excessive fluid from the injured area; this helps reduce the existing and prevent possible swelling and further impairment of blood flow. In combination these processes form a new level of treatment. Anatomic bandages of GameReady® system are manufactured based on the technology used by NASA when producing space suits; this makes it possible to assure exact and comfortable fitting regardless of the injured area of the body. Bandages are designed for almost all parts of the body including the ankle, knee, shoulder and elbow joints, lower back, hip/inguen and wrist. For rehabilitation after a surgery or complete rehabilitation of a knee joint, a special knee joint bandage was designed that is used together with passive respiration mechanisms.   Cryotherapy is treating by cold; it is a physiotherapeutic procedure the effect of which is based on response reactions of an organism to overcooling of the external (receptor) layer of the skin. The effectiveness of the method is explained by the use of a special assembly – cryo sweat bath (cryochamber) that operates on medical liquid nitrogen within the range of -140-150 С°. This type of cryo sweat baths resembles a vertical solarium. The temperature is selected in such a way that only the surface layer of the skin becomes cool and the whole organism does not overcool. The therapeutic effect is based on the fact that at first cold leads to abrupt narrowing of vessels, and then their widening (local cryotherapy). Thanks to this the system of blood supply receives a powerful impulse, metabolic processes are catalyzed. You should distinguish between general and local cryotherapy which despite their similar physiological effect give essentially different results. General cryotherapy stimulates the whole receptor field of the skin and influences the central nervous system. Local cryotherapy arouses local effects. General cryotherapy has an effect on a patient that in some way differs from hypothermal procedures including ice swimming. The procedure does not so hardly load the thermoregulation system of a person, does not have such a high stress-producing effect, does not give such a high adrenaline rush, increase in blood pressure and cardiac rate. Thanks to this, special preparation is not required for the procedure, there are no age limits, it can be used even in case of liability to colds. At the same time general cryotherapy is successfully used for prevention and treatment of obesity, but the effect is achieved not at the expense of energy loss, but thanks to normalization of the metabolic processes and endocrine profile. General cryotherapy assures preservation of the hormone of satiety, leptin, which reduces hunger and increases the efficiency of diet therapy. A sweat bath, a Finnish bath, promotes elimination of toxins, increases the general tonus, improves blood circulation, mitigates fatigue, favourably influences the respiratory system. A high temperature in a Finnish bath is tolerated more easily, and nothing restricts body perspiration. At the same time this temperature intensifies the effect of the bath procedure. The basic activating factor of a bath procedure is hot steam. Under a high temperature blood vessels extend, blood supply to the skin, muscles, joints, internal organs improves, the cardiac rate increases, the intensity of metabolic processes rises, oxygen intake and carbon dioxide outtake increase. Abundant sweating begins. Intensification of the activity of perspiratory and oil glands promotes not only better clearance of the skin, but also faster elimination of metabolic products. Activation of the activity of the heart and lungs with bath procedures has a training effect on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. A high temperature activates many processes of blood circulation: blood outflows from central organs to the periphery (muscles and skin), which considerably simplifies the work of the left atrium and left ventricle; congestions in the greater and lesser blood circulations disappear. Moreover, the level of hemoglobin and quantity of leucocytes and erythrocytes in blood increase. As the blood supply to the periphery increases, the blood flow in the brain decreases which reduces emotional activity and relieves stress. Muscular tissues of a person relax, the organism plunges into a state of rest, comfort obtaining an opportunity to recover its strength. As a result of extension of skin vessels and increased blood flow in muscles the capacity of the vascular bed increases. This leads to inconsistency between the capacity of the vascular bed and the volume of blood, and sometimes to a peripheral collapse, giddiness, tachycardia accompanied with a decrease in cardiac output. The elderly and patients with cardiovascular diseases can use baths for remedial purposes only as prescribed and according to the procedure proposed by the doctor, with periodic medical control. These properties are typical for peloid substances: paraffin, ozocerit, naphthalan. When using heat therapeutic media a whole range of factors influences a person, the most important of which is the temperature factor. Besides, mechanic and in some cases chemical effects are also important. These factors combined in different proportions determine the peculiarities with which known heat carriers influence an organism. The reaction of the organism to their application mostly depends on the temperature of the heat factor, area and place of impact, age, sex, occupation and adaptation capabilities of the organism. Like other irritators, heat first of all influences the skin that plays an important role in life activity of an organism. At the same time, irritating peripheral receptors heat reflexively influences the whole organism. The effect of heat therapeutic factors is realized also through blood that heats up, becomes rich with biologically active substances, and distributing around the whole organism influences all organs and tissues. Heat effect is accompanied with vessel extension and redness of skin. Vascular response can involve not only the skin but also the organs in the area of influence which results in blood redistribution in the organism and a change in the cardiac activity. Heat also influences the tissue immunity, sensibility of the skin and the whole organism. Heating of tissue is accompanied with changes in the velocity of biochemical reactions and activity of ferments, permeability of histochematic barriers. Acceleration of metabolic processes, increase of cell permeability and improvement of blood supply to tissues stimulate regeneration of epithelium, osseous, connective and other tissues. Heat processes reduce the muscle tone, their performance, increase nerve excitability, and in case of continuous application they reduce it. They have an antispasmodic effect on the digestive tract. At the same time some intensification of the secretory activity of the stomach and pancreatic gland as well as increase in bile secretion are observed. Heat effect improves blood circulation in renal arteries and promotes urine secretion. Heat application on the breast makes breathing more frequent and shallower. The basic therapeutic effects of thermal therapy are anti-inflammatory, trophicoregenerative, antispasmodic, vasodilating and metabolic. They identify the use of heat therapy in medical practice. Heat therapy is preliminarily used in case of chronic inflammatory processes of different location, consequences of diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems, adhesive processes, contractures, diseases of the skin and ENT organs, etc. It is contraindicated in case if acute inflammatory processes, debilitating diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver cirrhosis, malignant and benign tumours, infectious diseases, congenital degenerative progressive diseases of the nervous system, in the second phase of pregnancy. Mud therapy, or peloid therapy, is a method of heat therapy in which the organism is affected by medical mud of different types. When selecting mud therapy the following should be taken into account: form of the disease, localization, phase and stage of the pathological process, presence of accompanying diseases, general sensibility of the organism. The most wide spread types of mud therapy are a mud bath, mud applications, vaginal and rectal mud therapy, and combined mud therapeutic procedures. There are several versions of mud application therapy: intensive, conventional and sparing (mitigated). In case of intensive mud therapy the procedure with a relatively high temperature is prescribed every day or two-three days running with the next day for rest, the duration of a procedure is 15-20 minutes, the course of treatment consists of 14-16 procedures. Intensive mud therapy is prescribed for treatment of residual diseases or in the phase of stable remission without signs of disorders in the cardiovascular system. Most patients are prescribed with mud therapy according to the standard (conventional) method with the mud temperature of 40-42 °С, peat temperature of 42-44 °С, the duration of a procedure is 12-15 minutes, every other day, 10—12 procedures for a course. In case of sparing mud therapy procedures are prescribed every other day or even more rarely, the duration of a procedure is 10-12 minutes, mud temperature is 38-40 °С, a course consists of 10-12 procedures. This method is used to treat diseases of inflammatory character with moderate activity of the process or with accompanying cardiovascular diseases. In the sparing method medical mud is often applied on reflexogenic areas. Cavitary mud therapy consists in inserting a mud tampon into the vagina or rectum when treating preliminarily small pelvis diseases. Vaginal mud therapy is used in case of gynecological diseases in health resorts and in the practice outside health resorts. Besides simple mud therapy methods, combined mud therapeutic procedures are applied when simultaneously medical mud and other physical factors are used. The most well-known and effective of them are galvanic mud therapy, electrophoresis of the mud mixtures and mud compounds, mud inductothermia and peloid phonotherapy. Mud therapy is widely combined with many other physical methods of treatment. When mud therapy is used, baths (in an alternative way) or one of instrumental physiotherapeutic methods (ultrasound, impulse current, high frequency electrotherapy, etc.) is often prescribed additionally. Mud therapy can be combined with remedial physical training, massages, mechanotherapy, medication treatment. The following is not prescribed together with mud therapy on the same day: other heat therapeutic procedures, UV irradiation in erythema doses, cold or cool showers, sea bathing and aeroheliotherapy under lowered air temperatures. The next course of mud therapy is prescribed not earlier than in 6 months. Mud therapy in children is performed according to the same general rules as in adults, however it is used with more sparing methods taking into account age-specific peculiarities of a child. Peloid therapy is contraindicated for children under 2, and general mud therapy can be prescribed from the age of 14-16. Today, a remedial massage is the most wide-spread and effective non-medication method of treatment. A remedial massage is an ancient therapeutic method that still remains its efficiency and significance and, therefore, is included into the treatment of most diseases. It helps recover the normal activity of the whole organism. What makes it so popular? The answer is very simple. It has the following advantages: it has been used for more than one century, does not require any preparation, is universal, favourably affects the whole organism, improves the general state, and revives spirits! Although modern medicine and pharmacology have broad opportunities for treating almost any diseases, there is still a risk of possible adverse reaction. A remedial massage has a lot of indications for use with minimum restrictions. The scope of its application is very wide: in surgery, orthopedics, therapy, neurology and other fields of medicine, where it can be both a supplementary and independent method of treatment. A remedial massage directly influences both the receptors located on the body surface and the deeper structures (muscles, vessels, internal organs). A correctly selected method of massaging improves blood circulation and lymph outflow from internal organs and tissues, stimulates the rush of biologically active substances into blood that improve organism defenses. A remedial massage is performed in courses; the number of treatment procedures is selected individually based on the disease and its phase. Very often it takes only several procedures for the pain to relieve and the general state to improve. Special gels, massage creams and oils are used during a remedial massage session to increase its efficiency. These products are selected by the specialist individually taking into account compatibility and possible allergies. A hydromassage bath is a system with jets integrated into the bath. This massage can be stream or bubble. A soft bubble massage effectively mitigates fatigue and stress in muscles. A high pressure stream massage fills with energy. A hydromassage bath is deeper than a conventional bath. Water streams are directed at the areas of the body that require water massages most of all: hips, legs, sacrolumbar area. Water temperature and stream intensity can be adjusted. Sterilization of the bath is performed after each session. You need only sleepers, a towel and a swimsuit. Stream massages recover motor functions, increase mobility, remove the burden of the day and reduce the risk of spasms. Organs and tissues relaxed in water increase the efficiency of the bath procedure. Elasticity of vessels restores, they become stronger, and lymph and venous blood circulation activates. This procedure improves blood circulation, and therefore stimulates the activity of the heart. Metabolic activity accelerates, body defenses and the general tonus improve. Interval vacuum therapy is a new method that is based on innovative, advanced NASA technologies for treatment of leg vessel diseases. An interval vacuum therapeutic device is an effective instrument for blood flow control in the lower extremities. Interval vacuum therapy is used in
  • Phlebology, vascular surgery;
  • Vascular pathology;
  • Endocrinology, diabetology;
  • Dermatology, esthetic cosmetology;
  • Endocrinology, diabetology;
  • Rehabilitation, sports medicine;
  • Orthopedics ;
  • Gynecology, urology;
  • Physiotherapy ;
  • Angiology.
The device alternatively influences the lower extremities and abdominal area with negative and normal pressure. It resembles a pump or an “additional heart” for the lower part of the body. Negative pressure extends capillary vessels and increases the number of functioning capillaries. Perfusion in tissues increases, and, as a result, the supply of tissues with oxygen and nutrients increases. Even tissues with insufficient perfusion or ischemia activate and recover. Normal atmospheric pressure promotes more active movement of venous and lymphatic blood through capillary vessels of the venous and lymphatic systems, which intensifies lymph drainage, promotes the removal of metabolic products (activization of metabolism). Lymphatic pressure therapy (lymphatic drainage) consists in the use of air waves that under pressure contract and relax different parts of the body; it is used for normalization and strengthening the lymphatic flow. This procedure can intensify lymphatic and venous circulation, tonify muscles, clear the organism from toxins, fat degradation products, congested fluid. The procedure is performed using professional medical equipment, which makes it particularly efficient for treatment and prevention of different diseases. Pressure in each chamber can be changed from 10 to 200 mm Hg, if required, or even completely turned off, which assures accuracy and individuality of the impact. The main purpose of lymphatic pressure therapy is to set the congested lymph into motion by affecting lymphatic glands and vessels. A pressure therapy device has several modes that help a specialist select an optimal type and intensity of remedial impact. The number and duration of sessions is selected according to individual peculiarities of the organism, the type and degree of the disease. Instrumental lymphatic drainage solves a wide range of problems and often becomes a radical replacement of surgeries. Lymphatic pressure therapy is especially important for those who have contraindications for surgeries – pregnant women, children and elderly people suffering from diabetes mellitus and other accompanying diseases. Lymphatic drainage is strongly recommended not only in case of a detected pathology but also for general strengthening of an organism, prevention of thrombophlebitis and fluid congestion, for clearance from toxins, improvement of the external view of the body. An essential part of the treatment is the use of special compression knit underwear which is a modern convenient analogue of bandaging. Pressure therapy gives an opportunity to treat and also prevent possible or beginning diseases. Undergoing a course of this therapy each year will make it possible to significantly reduce the risk of varicosity, make the body healthier and fit. Shockwave therapy is actively used for treating musculoskeletal diseases. The method is considered to be effective, capable of reducing the taking of drugs and in some cases makes it possible to avoid a surgery. Shockwaves within the range of 1–15 Hz belong to the sound spectrum. They easily penetrate through fluids and soft tissues of a person. However, acoustic resistance of cartilaginous and osseous tissues is much higher, therefore shockwave therapy influences them more strongly. The remedial impact of shockwaves makes it possible to break calcifications, ossificates; clear calcified tissues from calcium, recovering their elasticity; stimulate the formation of protein of the connective tissue, collagen, that helps recover damaged tissues; activates the formation of small blood vessels in the area of the disease and improves metabolic processes in tissues. The operation of the device resembles tapping that gradually gives way to tingling. During the first session the procedure can be painful. Quick results of shockwave therapy can already be observed during the session or on the first days of treatment. After a while a delayed effect are observed. The remedial effect lasts for six months after the course of treatment. The first effects of shockwave therapy are:
  • Reduction of the intensity and frequency of pains;
  • Improvement of blood circulation in the area of wave impact;
The delayed effects of shockwave therapy are:
  • Improvement of mobility in the area of concern
  • Decrease in size and resolution of calcifications, osteophytes, scars and other formations;
  • Strengthening of ligaments, joints, tendons;
  • Formation of new blood vessels in the damaged area;
  • Improvement of histotrophic nutrition.
US_physio УUltrasound therapy (ultraphonotherapy) is a therapeutic use of mechanical vibrations of ultrahigh frequency called ultrasound. In physiotherapeutic practice ultrasound is used on fixed frequencies preliminarily within the range from 800 to 3000 kHz. The use of 100 kHz ultrasound and lower is called low frequency ultrasound therapy. Three factors influence the organism during ultrasound therapy: mechanical (vibration), thermal and physicochemical. The effect of all three factors is closely interrelated. Reflex mechanisms (the neurogenic factor) also participate in the formation of responses of the organism. The biological effect of ultrasound depends on its dose rate that can be stimulating, inhibiting or even irritating for tissues. Small ultrasound dose rates (up to 1.2 W/cm2) are the most adequate for therapeutic and preventive application. They can give pain-relieving, antispasmoic, vasodilating, resolving, anti-inflammatory, desensitizing effects. They activate blood and lymph circulation in the area of impact, increase phagocytosis, activate mechanisms of general and immunological responsiveness of an organism, accelerate processes of reparative regeneration, stimulate functions of endocrine organs and, first of all, of adrenal glands. Ultrasound has a depolymerizing and dissociating effect on indurated and sclerosal tissues; therefore, it is successfully used for treating scars, keloids, contractures of joints. It increases vascular and epithelial permeability, which lead to combined use of this factor with drugs and formation of ultraphonophoresis. Thanks to its property to damage cell membranes of some pathogenic microorganisms, in particular, leptospiras, ultrasound has a bactericidal effect. Complex histionic and endocrine changes in the organism formed under the influence of ultrasound are coordinated and regulated by the higher parts of the central nervous systems. The nervous system is the most sensitive to ultrasound. Impacts of low intensity revive oxidation-reduction processes in neurons, intensify the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, improve the utilization of glycogen and oxygen absorption by nerve cells, decrease the sensitivity of receptors, have a ganglion blocking effect. Ultrasound accelerates regeneration of the damaged peripheral nerve, has an activating and normalizing effect on the dynamics of the main nervous processes and responsiveness of the nervous system. It promotes activation of the structure of visceral brain, suprasegmentary structures of the parasympathetic section of the nervous system.
  • Improvement of blood and lymph circulation;
  • Anesthetization;
  • Immunity stimulation;
  • Improvement of the joint-muscle perception;
  • Improvement of responsiveness;
  • Stimulation of metabolic processes;
  • Acceleration of the processes of reparation and regeneration of tissues;
  • Resolution of swelling;
  • Myostimulation ;
  • Myorelaxation;
  • General relaxation;
  • Increase of compensatory capabilities of an organism;
  • Recovery of the normal function of organs and tissues;
  • Improvement of performance;
  • Protection from depressed mood;
  • Reduction of the rehabilitation period;
  • Preparation for surgeries.
Physiotherapy is actively and successfully used in many medical fields:
  • gynecology,
  • urology,
  • venereology,
  • sexopathology,
  • surgery,
  • dentistry,
  • ophthalmology,
  • neurology,
  • pediatrics,
  • cardiology,
  • pulmonology,
  • gastroenterology,
  • psychology,
  • rehabilitation,
  • orthopedics,
  • rheumatology,
  • cosmetology,
  • trichology,
  • dermatology,
  • endocrinology,
  • traumatology
  • and even oncology.
  • acute fever;
  • less than 3 months after myocardial infarction;
  • hemorrhagic tendency;
  • blood diseases;
  • decompensation of chronic diseases;
  • general severe state of the patient;
  • cachexia;
  • psychic diseases that hinder the patient to control the procedure;
  • Cardiostimulator;
  • individual intolerance of a therapeutic factor;
If a patient has states or diseases listed below physiotherapy can be performed provided that a special method of impact is selected, individual time of treatment and area of impact as well as manipulation technique are identified.
  • Neoplastic processes;
  • Skin integrity impairment in the area affected by the procedure;
  • Pregnancy and lactation;
  • Gall and kidney stone disease;
  • Accentuated hypotension;
  • Thrombophlebitis;
  • Osteoporosis.
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