Electrotherapy and phototherapy

mitri.az

Electrotherapy consists in therapeutic use of dosed impact of electrical currents, magnetic or electromagnetic fields on the organism. Electrotherapy includes galvanization, darsonvalization, diathermy, magnetotherapy, etc. Equipment, devices and instruments of electrotherapy can simulate different types of electrotherapeutic impact.

Magnetotherapy is the use of the influence of a permanent or alternating low frequency magnetic field, in continuous or intermittent modes. The influence of a magnetic field is based on cellular or non-cellular components of blood, its coagulation system and endothelium of vessels (synthesis of prostaglandins), change of oxidation-reduction processes, displacement in the elements of the neuroendocrine system – activation of endocrine glands – targets (hormone ejection), metabolic reactions, increase of the level of autoantibodies, changes of the rheological properties of blood, improvement of microcirculation.
Phototherapy is the influence of light rays on the skin on a regular basis and under supervision of a physician. Special lamps or lasers are used in the equipment for phototherapy:

  • Ultraviolet radiation (180-400 nm)
  • Infrared radiation (650-2000 nm)
  • Visible radiation (400-760 nm)

Light spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, dark blue, violet. Each type of radiation has its special indications for use and impact methods. Phototherapy procedures shall be prescribed by a physician and performed under supervision of a specialist.

mitri.az Magnetotherapy is the influence of a permanent or alternating low frequency magnetic field, in continuous or intermittent modes. Physical and physiological effects of magnetotherapy include
  • Guidance of electromotive force;
  • Influence on the course of a number of free-radical chemical reactions in biological systems and the processes of lipid peroxidation in membranes;
  • Influence on volume electric charges – their discharge and transfer of electrical energy into mechanical;
  • Change of the probability of electron transfers that influence the velocity of chemical reactions (taking into account the system of iron, copper, and manganum ions).
Non-thermal quantum-mechanical effect of permanent and alternating magnetic fields. The influence of a magnetic field is based on cellular or non-cellular components of blood, its coagulation system and endothelium of vessels (synthesis of prostaglandins), change of oxidation-reduction processes, displacement in the elements of the neuroendocrine system – activation of endocrine glands – targets (hormone ejection), metabolic reactions, increase of the level of autoantibodies, changes of the rheological properties of blood, improvement of microcirculation. The therapeutic effect is
  • anti-inflammatory,
  • antiedematous,
  • pain-relieving,
  • reparative,
  • hypotensive.
mitri.az Galvanization is the therapeutic use of direct, time-independent, electrical current of a low voltage and large strength. Under the influence of an applied external electromagnetic field galvanic current appears in tissues that changes the ratio of ions in cells and the intercellular space. The method of galvanization is based on excitation of skin receptors with an electrical field, which leads to the development of general and local reactions of an organism: blood and lymph circulation intensifies, metabolism and remedial processes in tissues are stimulated, a pain-relieving effect appears. Therapeutic effects of galvanization include:
  • anti-inflammatory (draining and dehydrating),
  • analgesic,
  • sedative (on the anode),
  • vasodilating,
  • myorelaxing,
  • secretory (on a cathode).
Medical electrophoresis (ionophoresis, iontophoresis) is the use of galvanic current; an organism is influenced not only by a current, but also by the medication that is injected by means of this current; this medication is collected in the skin depot (in the form of ions) and kept there for up to 3 weeks and gradually submitted to blood. Ionophoresis is used in patients with skin diseases of a wide-spread character that appear in connection with functional changes in the nervous system.
mitri.az A galvanic medical bath is a bath with additional physical impact when the effect of general baths is combined with the effect of direct current. Distributing through the body direct electric current stimulates blood circulation in muscles and skin. The effect of electrical current intensifies by adding medication into water. Baths have a desensitizing, anti-inflammatory, sedative effect on the organism. It is achieved thanks to specialized electrodes on the lateral parts of a bath, at the head and the feet to which a small voltage is applied. As resistance of a human body is significantly greater than water resistance, the most part of galvanic currents goes through water. However, another part of currents goes along the skin surface and inside the organism having a remedial effect on the organism. Procedures in galvanic baths are very useful when treating arthritis, rheumatisms, palsies, nerve inflammation, back pain, recovering after fractures and luxations. Moreover, galvanic baths are additionally equipped with a hydromassage function which itself is very useful. Four-chamber baths are designed not only for hydrogalvanic procedures, they also allow performing ordinary local baths (for hands or legs) with the use of different mineral, radon water and water with medical herbs. The temperature of the water is 34-40°С. A course of treatment consists of 6 to 20 procedures, the duration of each procedure is 10-20 minutes, hydroelectric baths are performed every other day. It is recommended to have a rest for at least 30 minutes after the bath.
mitri.az Darsonvalization is a method of electrotherapy. It is used to treat neuroses, local trophopathies, for example, cold injuries, trophic ulcers and other states. Darsonvalization decreases the sensitivity of skin receptors; has an antipruritic and pain-relieving effect; increases the tone of venous vessels reducing venous stasis; accelerates wound and trophic ulcer healing. A contactless method is when the distance between the electrode and the skin is several millimeters.
  • The electrode is 2-3 mm above the skin. Multiple flashes appear in this case, “cold sparkles” appear
  • The electrode is at the distance of 0.5-1 cm. During the procedure you can hear strong crackles and see long sparkles. This spot method is used to affect small parts of skin, for example to burn warts.
In case of contactless method of darsonvalization the remedial effect is achieved thanks to a number of reactions:
  1. Reflexive reaction. Flashes affect sensitive nerve fibres. Through them excitation goes to the spinal cord. After that reflexive reactions of the organs that are related with this area of the spinal cord appear. At the same time cells that block pain impulses from the damaged area are activated.
  2. Vascular reaction. The vascular wall of arterioles and capillaries relaxes, their lumen extends. At the same time blood microcirculation and metabolism in the processed area intensify. Darsonvalization is characterized by an increase of the venous tone and improvement of the venous and lymphatic outflow.
  3. Immune reaction. A flow of ionized ions causes shock waves, at the same moment a distinctive crackle can be heard. At the place of ion attack skin cells become damaged and die. These focuses of micronecrosis stimulate defense reactions of an organism. At the same time different biologically active substances are discharged: prostaglandins, heparin, cytokines, histamine, and then its inhibitors (substances that inhibit its action).
As a result unstriated muscles relax, spasms of bronchi, vessels and the gastrointestinal tract disappear, blood coagulability normalizes, the phagocytic activity of leukocytes increases, allergy symptoms disappear. Charged ions kill bacteria on the skin. This effect is intensified by ozone and nitrogen oxide output. Small inflammations dry out a little, while large inflammations filled with purulence erode very soon. A darsonvalization procedure is absolutely painless. During a session according to a contactless method the patient feels warm. In case of contactless darsonvalization slight tingling appears, ozone can be smelled in the air. Local darsonvalization affects individual sections of the body, not more than 3 minutes for each section. The overall duration of a procedure should not exceed 15 minutes. It is used to remove pain, inflammations and allergy symptoms on different sections of the body. General darsonvalization (inductotherapy) affects the whole body with high frequency alternating current. A d’Arsonval cage is used for this procedure. A solenoid coil is used to create a high frequency impulse electromagnetic field which is used to affect the whole body and treat hypertension, metabolic disorders in case of hypothyreosis, diseases accompanied with nervous excitement. In recent times general darsonvalization is seldom used.
BTL Diatermie Diathermy is a method of physical treatment when the body of the patient is warmed up with high frequency currents. Because it is difficult to perform, it is almost not used now. As an alternative, patients are recommended to undergo inductotherapy or microwave therapy. The therapeutic effect of the procedures is mainly based on the heat effect. When current goes through tissues it makes electrolytes containing in them move oscillatively, which is accompanied with an energy loss. The amount of heat that is released in the organism is directly proportional to the current strength and time of its application. Tissues with high resistance are warmed up most of all (within 3-4ºС): muscles, bones, fat, articular cartilages. Insignificant heat reactions are observed in organs that are rich in blood and lymph: liver, lungs, spleen, etc. Their temperature increases only by tenth degrees. Heat formation causes a cascade of physiological reactions:
  • The performance of endocrine glands intensifies. All types of metabolism activate — fat, carbohydrate, protein. Reparative processes in tissues begin to run more vividly, fat reserves are burned more quickly. Biliary excretion improves in patients with liver dysfunctions. The production of glucocorticoids that have an anti-inflammatory effect increases in the adrenal glands.
  • Impulse (including pain) conduction through nerve fibres slows down. As a result, sensation of pain reduces, irritation decreases, sleeping normalizes.
  • The rate of blood and lymph flow increases. Toxin metabolic waste products remove from tissues and organs more quickly. Inflammatory focuses disappear.
  • The performance of immune cells (leukocytes and macrophages) activates. Organism defenses strengthen.
Generally, the therapy has a pronounced analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous and spasmolytic effect.
mitri.az Nowadays, UHF therapy (treatment with an ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic field) is used to treat a lot of different diseases. The positive effect of UHF therapy on the organism is explained by the following: an ultrahigh frequency electric field creates a heat effect in tissues, bones, tendons. Due to this effect they undergo chemical and biochemical changes. Thus, UHF influences the biophysical and biochemical processes in the organism. Biophysical processes include an increase in the permeability of vessel walls, which helps reduce swelling. At the same time vessels do not give way to microbes and toxins, which promotes detoxification of the organism. Biochemical processes include pH acidification, which helps increase the number of leucocytes and strengthen organism defenses. Owing to the influence of UHF a kind of barrier forms around local inflammation that helps separate the pathological process from healthy cells. This barrier is especially important in case of suppurative inflammatory processes. UHF physiotherapy has the following effects:
  • regenerating;
  • anti-inflammatory;
  • spasmolytic;
  • anesthetic.
mitri.az Electrical stimulation (transcutaneous dynamic electrical nerve stimulation) is the use of impulse currents to affect nerve guides; parameters of impulse currents are modified according to the impedance of tissues in the affected zone. The method of bioregulated electrical impulse therapy is based on the use of current impulses with a frequency within 2 to 500 Hz that change their form. The efficiency of this type of electrical impulse therapy in case of injuries and diseases of the peripheral nervous system is achieved thanks to activation of the processes of the local, segmental and central levels. In case of electrical stimulation of the distal section of a damaged nerve it is possible to maintain the contractility of denervated muscles, improve microcirculation in the damaged neuromuscular apparatus and accelerate absorption of damaged nerve fibres. Therapeutic effects: myoneurostimulating, trophistimulating, pain-relieving, spasmolytic, vasodilating, catabolic, plastic. When a proximal section of a damaged nerve is affected, absent sensory input is compensated from palsied muscles to the spinal cord and cerebrum, which accelerated the process of regeneration of damaged nerve fibres. This therapy also has anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects thanks to the use of impulses with different frequency, their modulation by duration, amplitude, intensity of impact.
mitri.az Infrared radiation (heat radiation, infrared rays) penetrates into the tissues of an organism deeper than other types of light energy, warming up the full thickness of skin and, partially, subdermal tissues. Deeper structures are not exposed to direct warming up. The scope of therapeutic application of infrared radiation is rather wide: nonsuppurative chronic and subacute inflammatory local processes including those of internal organs, some diseases of the musculoskeletal apparatus, central and peripheral nervous system, peripheral vessels, eyes, ears, skin, residual effects after burning and freezing injuries. The therapeutic effect of infrared radiation is determined by the mechanism of its physiological action – it accelerates the regression of inflammatory processes, increases regeneration of tissues, local resistivity and anti-infectious defense. Violation of the rules for conducting the procedure can result in dangerous overheating of tissues and thermal injuries, as well as overloading of blood circulation which is dangerous in case of cardiovascular diseases. Absolute contraindications are tumours (benign or malignant) or suspected tumours, active forms of tuberculosis, bleeding, insufficient blood circulation. Infrared radiation is optical radiation with a wave length of more than 780 nm. Any heated object is a source of infrared radiation. Infrared radiation makes up to 45-50% of solar radiation that falls to the Earth. In artificial light sources (tungsten filament lamps) it makes up to 70-80% of the energy from the whole radiation. The formation of heat that happens when infrared radiation energy is absorbed results in a local increase of the temperature of irradiated skin integuments of 1-2 °С and causes local heat regulating reactions of the superficial vascular tree. Vascular reaction is expressed as a short-term spasm of vessels (up to 30 s), and then an increase in the local blood flow and volume of blood circulating in tissues. The released heat energy accelerates the metabolism in tissues. Activation of the microcirculatory bloodstream and increment of vascular permeability promote dehydration of the inflammatory focus and elimination of cellular debris. Activation of proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts accelerate healing of wounds and trophic ulcers. A neuroreflectory effect is also realized on internal organs, this effect is expressed by extension of the vessels of these organs, intensification of their trophics. Therapeutic effects: anti-inflammatory, lymphodraining, vasodilating. Heat is determined by chaotic oscillating movement of microparticles (electrons, molecules, atoms, etc.). It is inherent to all material particles. Transfer of heat from less heated to more heated objects is made in three ways: conduction, convection, radiation. The body of a human being both absorbs and radiates heat. Any impact of infrared rays on the organism increases functional activity of molecules. Cell reproduction, enzymatic processes, and regeneration accelerate. Infrared radiation stimulates formation of biologically active substances (bradykinin, histamine, acetylcholine) in tissues that determine the rate of blood flow. Thermal receptors of the skin, mucosa, hypothalamus and spinal cord respond to heat rays (they respond to the increase in the temperature of inflowing blood). Along afferent paths impulses from thermal receptors go to thermal regulation centres (hypothalamus, spinal cord), from where they return along afferent paths and extend vessel, intensify sweating, etc. Red and infrared rays are absorbed by derma, however 30% of rays penetrate about 3-4 cm deeper reaching the subcutaneous fat layer and internal organs. Medium and long wave rays are absorbed by epidermis. Under the impact of infrared radiation erythema appears on the affected skin; it is of macular character, has no distinct boundaries and disappears when irradiation stops. Infrared radiation is widely used in facial cosmetology: to relax mimic muscles, improve blood circulation, enlarge pores through which metabolic products are actively removed. Infrared radiation is used in combination with remedial gymnastics and massages. It accelerates resolution of hematomas, infiltrates, improves general and local hemodynamics. Indications: subacute and chronic non-suppurative inflammatory diseases of internal organs, burning and freezing injuries, poorly healing wounds and trophic ulcers, diseases of the peripheral nervous system with a pain syndrome, vegetative dysfunctions, sympathalgia. Contraindications: tumours, acute inflammatory processes and chronic inflammatory processes in an acute phase, bleeding, phase III hypertensive disease, phase II-III insufficiency of blood circulation, active forms of tuberculosis, etc.
mitri.az Ultraviolet radiation carries high energy. By its activity it significantly exceeds all other sections of the luminous spectrum. At the same time ultraviolet rays have the smallest depth of penetration into tissues – only up to 1 mm. Therefore, their direct influence is limited with the surface layers of irradiated sections of the skin and mucous membranes. The skin of the body is the most sensitive to ultraviolet rays, while the skin of extremities is the least sensitive. Sensitivity to ultraviolet rays is increased in children, especially at an early age. Ultraviolet irradiation increases the efficiency of defensive mechanisms, desensitizes, normalizes blood coagulation processes, improves lipid (fat) metabolism indicators. Application of ultraviolet rays in therapeutic purposes with a well selected individual dose and accurate control gives a high therapeutic effect in case of many diseases. It is a pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, desensitizing, immunostimulatory, general strengthening effect. Their application promotes epithelialization of the wound surface, regeneration of the nervous and osseous tissue. Ultraviolet radiation significantly affects phospho-calcium metabolism, stimulates formation of vitamin D and improves all metabolic processes in the organism. Short wave ultraviolet rays in case of long-term exposure cause denaturation of protein polymers that lose their biological activity. At first, an irradiated cell loses its fission capability and then dies. This effect is used to sterilize by means of special lamps of the short wave ultraviolet spectrum. Processes of photolysis and denaturation caused by ultraviolet irradiation take place in the stratum spinosum of epidermis; at the same time histamine, biogenic amines, acetylcholine are released. These products of the photochemical reaction result in erythema that appears 2-8 hours after irradiation. Intensive ultraviolet erythema of the whole body causes intensification of acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid simultaneous irradiation of the whole body with medium and short wave ultraviolet rays or strictly control the process of irradiation. Strictly dosed ultraviolet radiation has desensitizing properties, intensifies phagocytosis, accelerates gas metabolism. At the place affected by ultraviolet rays blood and lymph flow intensifies, epithelium regeneration improves, synthesis of collagen fibres accelerates. For therapeutic purposes in dermatology ultraviolet radiation in the medium and long wave spectra is used. Long wave ultraviolet rays have the maximum pigment forming effect. Therefore, sources of long wave ultraviolet radiation are used in sunbathing devices (solariums). Unlike natural conditions, solariums use filters that absorb short wave and medium wave rays. Irradiation in solariums starts from a minimum period of time, and then the duration of insolation gradually increases. Overdosage of ultraviolet rays causes preliminary aging, reduction of skin elasticity, skin and oncologic diseases. Indications for the use of ultraviolet radiation are acute and chronic diseases of joints, respiration organs, female reproduction organs, skin, peripheral nervous system, wounds (local irradiation), as well as compensation of ultraviolet insufficiency to increase the resistivity of the organism to different infections, to harden the organism, to prevent rachitis, in case of tuberculous bone disorders. Contraindications: tumours, acute inflammatory processes and chronic inflammatory processes in an acute phase, bleeding, phase III hypertensive disease, phase II-III insufficiency of blood circulation, active forms of tuberculosis, etc. ultraviolet radiation carries high energy. By its activity it significantly exceeds all other sections of the luminous spectrum. At the same time ultraviolet rays have the smallest depth of penetration into tissues – only up to 1 mm. Therefore, their direct influence is limited with the surface layers of irradiated sections of the skin and mucous membranes. The skin of the body is the most sensitive to ultraviolet rays, while the skin of extremities is the least sensitive. Deficiency of ultraviolet rays causes hypovitaminosis, decrease in immunity, weak performance of the nervous system, mental instability.
mitri.az Many pathologies caused by overloading, injuries or degeneration are located deeply in muscular and articular structures. Until recently it was not possible to supply the required laser energy to these structures to model and treat pathologies. In fact, when penetrating into the depth of tissues radiation energy decreases exponentially (this is explained with reflection, absorption and diffusion effects). Therefore, to supply the required amount of laser energy to deeply located problem areas it is necessary to expose the skin surface with high energy doses of laser radiation. Only in this case deep anatomic structures will be stimulated. However, it is known that large doses of laser energy heat the surface and up to now no one managed to develop a way to supply such large amount of energy deeply into the tissues without overheating the surface tissues. It became possible thanks to HILT® impulse patented in the USA. HILT® impulse generated with a specific impulse Nd:YAG laser (with a wave length of 1064 nm) is characterized with a very high pick power (in the kW range) that is released within a very short period of time. During this very quick transmission of energy tissues at a large depth are illuminated with a “portion” of photons with high energy and intensity, while the surface tissues never warm up above the threshold value. Moreover, the time interval between the impulses is more than enough to fully dissipate the transmitted heat. Thus, heat is not accumulated and temperature never reaches the dangerous level. Hilterapia® (HILT® = High Intensity Laser Therapy) is a therapeutic method based on high intensity laser radiation which makes it possible to achieve a therapeutic effect in deep tissues while being absolutely safe. This method is ideal for treating pathologies of the musculoskeletal and articular apparatuses from the most superficial to the deepest of them. High intensity of this radiation not achievable with any other existing laser devices makes it possible to treat even deeply located chronic pathologies. In practice, if it is really necessary to cure a person and not only remove symptoms, the required dose of energy should be supplied directly to the damaged zone in a correct way. Advantages of Hilterapia® technology: high intensity and strong effect of HILT® impulse make it possible to achieve not only pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects but also cause reparative and regenerative processes. Characteristics of the duration and frequency of HILT® impulses assure safe therapy that avoids any dangerous impact. Moreover, this curative effect of Hilterapia® in deep tissues fantastically influences pain symptoms and joint mobility, which makes it possible to immediately begin a rehabilitation program rendering prompt assistance to the patient. The photomechanical effect the strength of which is directly proportional to the intensity of laser radiation and inversely proportional to the impulse duration creates a range of biological signals that cause reparative and regenerative processes in tissues and at the same time activate lymph drainage and microcirculation. Under proper control the photomechanical effect intensively biostimulates cells as well as activates the vascular and lymphatic systems. Indications:
  • pathologies of tendons (tendinitis, peritendinitis, insertional tendinitis, tenosynovitis, local injuries)
  • arthrosis and degenerative processes of the cartilage
  • muscle disorders
  • post-traumatic and post-overloading disorders
  • swelling and hematomas as a result of traumas
  • bursitis, arthritis, capsulitis, epicondylitis, injuries, synovitis
  • spondylodynia and lumbago
  • fibromyalgia
  • abductor syndrome, curvature of the tibia tarsus, chondropathy of the kneecap in sports traumatology
  • osteoarthritis.
The effect of Hilterapia® in deep tissues makes it possible to successfully treat even deep degenerative pathologies.
  • Photo therapy is used to treat such skin diseases as psoriasis, acne, neurodermite, eczema, newborn jaundice
  • The procedure promotes the healing of trophic ulcers and wounds.
  • The procedure is widely used in the beauty industry. It is used for photo epilation, skin rejuvenation, rhytidectomy, removal of pigment spots, to correct vascular defects of skin. Tattoos are removed with special lamps for photo therapy
  • Moreover, the procedure influences the eye retina and can be used to treat depressions, sleep and mental disorders.
  • Light therapy is recommended as a method to restore the regime of an organism in case of jet lag.
  • It reduces itching;
  • Has an anti-inflammatory effect;
  • Increases the level of vitamin D in the organism;
  • Increases the level of skin resistivity to bacteria;
  • Can become a method to avoid the use of more powerful systemic treatment with cyclosporine or methotrexate.
Time. For a treatment to be effective 2-3 procedures a week during 2-3 months are required. You should consider if you have time for that.
Risks.There is a risk of skin burning, aging. In case of continuous use of photo therapy the skin cancer risk increases. It is necessary to protect eyes during each session, as ultraviolet has a destructive influence on the eye retina.
There are almost no absolute contraindications for photo therapy, however in case of certain conditions and diseases it is necessary to be extremely careful when prescribing these procedures:
  • Tuberculosis, porphyria, thyrotoxicosis;
  • Eye diseases;
  • Light sensitivity of skin..
Besides, photo therapy is incompatible with some drugs: lamotrigine, haloperidol, methotrexate, chloroquine, hypericum extract.
AZ RU EN Mobile : +994502634075/77 E-mail : info@itrdi.az +994 (12) 404 83 10/11 FAQ