Neurorehabilitation is part of rehabilitation that deals with the recovery of patients from cerebrovascular accidents (strokes), spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injuries, neurological problems, patients with protoneuropathy, vertebrogenic neurological syndromes, infantile cerebral palsy, disseminated sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, motor neurone diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar palsy, progressive muscular atrophy), inherited neurological disorders (torsion dystonia, cerebellar ataxia), polyneuropathy, muscle diseases, vertebrogenic neurological syndromes.
Undoubtedly, the purposes and tasks of neurorehabilitation for diseases with a developed neurological defect (for example, cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries) and for progressive degenerative and inherited diseases (Parkinson’s disease, motor neurone diseases etc.) differ.
Thus, the main objective of rehabilitation for the first group of diseases that includes cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, protoneuropathy and plexopathy, vertebrogenic radicular and spinal syndromes, and infantile cerebral palsy is to fully recover the functions affected by a disease or an injury or otherwise to optimally implement the physical, psychological and social potential of a disabled person, to most adequately integrate him/her into the society.
The objective of physical rehabilitation for patients with the second group of diseases which includes progressive degenerative and inherited neurological diseases is to decrease the basic symptoms, prevent and treat complications relating to diminished motor performance, correct functional disorders, adapt to the existing neurological deficit, to enhance tolerance to physical exercises, improve the quality of life, and increase social activity.
Nowadays neurorehabilitation is considered to be one of priority line in the development of the present-day medicine. This is mainly explained by findings in the field of the fundamental principles of flexible processes in affected motor cortex. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies with animals as well as imaging and other non-invasive human brain mapping methods provided unquestionable evidence of the ability of adult cerebral cortex to reorganize its functions.
Irrespective of the disease neurorehabilitation is based on the following principles:
- early start of therapeutic procedures (as soon as the physical state of the patient and his/her state of consciousness allow);
- integrity in the application of all available and required rehabilitation measures;
- individualization of the rehabilitation program;
- step-by-step approach in the rehabilitation process;
- continuity and consistency at all steps of rehabilitation;
- social focus;
- application of methods for controlling the adequacy of load and efficiency of rehabilitation.
Neurovascular rehabilitation of patients with injuries of the central nervous system is based on the four main components:
Medical examination and performance status evaluation..
Primary examination makes it possible for physicians to assess your performance status, physical strength, limitations and other states that influence the selection of motor, psychological, social, or logopedic rehabilitation. Physicians evaluate your risk factors in cardiovascular diseases, expansion of strokes. Based on the information received physicians develop an individual rehabilitation program which is safe and efficient exactly for you.
Complete or partial recovery of motor and sensory disturbances.
Motor disturbances are one of the most wide-spread and complex consequences of a stroke. The recovery of the motor functions is observed in most patients; with adequate remedial gymnastics and kinetotherapy patients with even rough motor disturbances begin to stand and walk unassisted at least 3-6 months after the disease. We have excellent results with the use of the robotic-assisted locomotor device, the G-EO system, with standing opportunities and further learning to walk. Absence of a positive effect in 3-6 months can be caused by loss of deep sensation in paretic extremities and (or) weak motivation of the patient for rehabilitation which is often observed in case of underestimate of the severity of the disease or its disregard (anosognosia).
Methodical life training..
Diet is one of the most important moments in neurovascular rehabilitation. You will be taught how to eat and select healthy food that best suites you avoiding excess fat, salt and cholesterol. You will be assisted to quit bad habits that are in contradiction with a healthy life style of a person who suffered from a stroke, for example, smoking. You will be taught how to cope with pain and tiredness. It is healthy nutrition that helps lose excess weight.
A stroke and state after it is a serious problem that makes you feel frustrated. It can lead to depression, annoyance. You can’t work or do routine things. Therefore, psychological support is very important. If you suffer from depression don’t ignore this step of rehabilitation, otherwise recovery from the disease will become very difficult. Control of depression can be made with the help of both medication therapy and continuous exercises that allow you forget about the disease, give you confidence in successful recovery as well as strength and energy.