Ultrasound imaging

mitri.az

Ultrasound imaging is an investigation of the tissues of an organism with ultrasound waves. A sensor produces waves that penetrate tissues. When passing through organs and tissues ultrasound reflects. These fluctuations are captured by a special device on the sensor and transformed into an image. As a result a physician sees a profile of a tissue or organ on the display. The institute has a wide range of equipment for ultrasound imaging, five apparatuses, and lots of various sensors.
Special apparatuses are used to perform echocardiologic imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, to detect pathologies of internal organs, to detect pathologies of vessels and vessel walls with Doppler imaging, to perform remote investigation in case of surgeries and manipulations, to achieve highly accurate conclusions and successful results of procedures.

mitri.az Echocardiorgaphy (EchoCG) is an ultrasound diagnostic method for investigating morphological and functional changes in the heart and its valves. EchoCG is the most widely used method for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. Our equipment enables real time 2D and 3D detailed investigation of the structure of the heart with a very high space (‹1 mm) and time (>100 images/s) resolution. EchoCG is not related with harmful ionizing radiation. Thanks to its comparatively low price and high diagnostic value EchoCG is at the forefront of visualizing methods in cardiology.
Doppler echocardiography makes it possible to determine the velocity of blood and movement of the heart muscle at any point, allowing assessing the blood flow in case of acquired valve and congenital defects, as well as the movement and deformation of the myocardium in case of ischemia or cardiomyopathies. Usually, Doppler frequency shift is within the range of human audio perception and can be reproduced by an echocardiograph in the form of sound. Recent achievements in EchoCG include its use in stress testing which is now available at our institute, especially in detecting myocardial ischemia, and in contrasting right and left heart chambers.
mitri.az USI of the abdominal cavity makes it possible to analyze the liver, spleen, pancreatic gland, retroperitoneal space, gall bladder and kidneys, as well as to examine the intestines, stomach wall, lymph glands and large vessels, to determine the size, location and form of organs, thickness of the walls and structure of tissues. Ultrasound imaging can detect diseases at an early stage and makes it possible to begin treatment in proper time. When should you visit a doctor to make USI of the abdominal cavity?
  • Pain in the abdominal cavity, midriff;
  • Gall bladder disorders;
  • Heaviness in the stomach, in the right hypochondrium, bitter taste in the mouth;
  • Lower back injuries, girdling pain;
  • Enlargement of lymph glands, liver and spleen;
  • Foreign objects in the abdominal cavity;
  • Loss of weight, temperature increase without any reason, weakness;
  • Urinary and gall stone disease..
What can USI of the abdominal cavity detect?
  • Pathologies of the liver: hepatitis, cysts, stone in ducts, tumours;
  • Cholecystitis, stones in the gall bladder;
  • Enlargement and abnormal development of the spleen, tumours;
  • Pancreatitis, pancreatic gland tumours;
  • “Sand” and stones in kidneys, pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, tumours and cysts in kidneys;
  • Portal hypertension;
  • Impaired abdominal aorta;
  • Ascites;
  • Liberated gas;
  • Liver cirrhosis with elastography;
  • Appendicitis, etc.
How should you prepare for USI of the abdominal cavity? You should keep diet three days before the procedure. You should refrain from rye bread, peas, beans, milk products, sugar, sweets, preserved food, fresh fruits and vegetables, juice and carbonated drinks. During these days you can eat buckwheat and barley cereal, poultry meat, beef, lean fish and cheese, boiled dishes. Eat with small portions 4-5 times a day. A day before the procedure you should take 1-2 tablets of activated carbon or a tablet of “Mezym” after each meal. You should not eat 7-10 hours before the USI of the abdominal cavity. If you have an examination in the morning, have no breakfast, do not drink and take any drugs to receive true results. It is not recommended to chew the gum or to suck lollipops. How is the procedure performed? You lie down on a bed with your face up. A transparent gel is applied on your belly. The gel provides close contact between the sensor and your skin. Then the doctor begins the examination with the sensor. How long does the procedure last? USI of the abdominal cavity lasts 15-20 minutes.
mitri.az Ultrasound waves penetrate soft tissues and reflect from them. Depending on the density of tissues ultrasound reflects in different ways. These waves are captured by a special sensor and transformed into an image. As a result a physician sees a profile of tissues on the display. To make a correct diagnosis physicians of the institute perform USI of soft tissues together with other diagnostic methods. The imaging makes it possible to detect diseases at an early stage and begin treatment in proper time. When is USI of soft tissues performed?
  • Pain in soft tissues after a severe injury or without any reason;
  • Inflammation in soft tissues;
  • Damages, distention, dislocations;
  • Reduction or enlargement of some muscles or group of muscles;
  • Swelling without any reason;
  • Impending surgery on soft tissues..
What can USI of soft tissues detect? The imaging helps determine the following:
  • osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis;
  • intervertebral hernia;
  • Masses: hygroma, hemangioma, atheroma;
  • Abscess or suppurative inflammations of tissues;
  • Hematoma ;
  • Myositis ;
  • Connective tissue diseases;
  • Lymphostasis.
How should you prepare for USI of soft tissues?
Ultrasound imaging of soft tissues does not require any preparation.
How is the procedure performed? The patient sits or lies down on the bed. A gel is applied on the area that will be examined. The gel improves the contact between the sensor and your skin and the transfer of ultrasound waves. The physician moves the sensor and analyzes the information displayed on the monitor. How long does the procedure last?
USI of soft tissues lasts 15-20 minutes.
mitri.az The institute has experienced USI specialists. During the procedure a physician examines the internal and external menisci, ligament of the rectus muscle of thigh, knee cap, lateral ligaments, articular surfaces of the femoral bone and the tibia, hyaline cartilage. The ultrasound scanner clearly displays soft tissues and vessels of the knee joint thanks to 3T and iFlow technologies.
To make a correct diagnosis physicians of the institute perform USI together with other diagnostic methods. The imaging makes it possible to detect diseases at an early stage and begin treatment in proper time. Ultrasound imaging of joints is recommended in the following cases:
  • Pain and swelling in the area of joints during movements and at rest, pain in muscles;
  • Restricted mobility;
  • Morning stiffness in joints;
  • Enlargement of the joint;
  • Impending surgery on the joint.
Joints are examined after surgeries, previous Lyme disease, injury and its consequences. USI of joints is recommended for people after the age of 50, with excessive weight or endocrine diseases.
Specialists recommend ultrasound imaging of the knee joints in case of severe pain in knees, crepitus during movements, damages, knee inflammation, suspected injuries of ligaments and menisci, tumours of articular bones.
What can USI of joints detect?
  • Using USI the physician detects hematoma, raptures, arthritis and arthrosis, tumours.
  • ОExamination of the hip joint detects uratic arthritis, periarthritis, bursitis, impaired hip abduction, rheumatic arthritis, arthropathy in case of Reiter’s disease, inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joint, coxarthrosis, femoral head necrosis
  • Using USI of the knee the physician diagnoses injuries of meniscus, ligament impairment, bursitis, Baker’s cyst in the ham, gonarthrosis, bone hypertrophy, inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joint.
  • УUSI of leg joints shows raptures and strain of muscles, ligaments and tendons, type of swelling and hematomas.
It is recommended to make a diagnosis when the first symptoms of joint diseases appear. It makes it possible to detect the disease at an early stage and begin treatment in proper time.
How is the procedure performed?
When examining joints the patient sits or lies down on the bed. A gel is applied on the area that will be examined. The gel improves the contact between the sensor and your skin and the transfer of ultrasound waves. The physician moves the sensor and examines the joint.
When examining the knee joint the patient lies down on the bed with his face up. A gel is applied on the knee to provide close contact between the sensor and the skin. Then using the sensor the physician examines the frontal and lateral surfaces of the knee joint. Then the patient should lie with his face down and the physician will examine the back surface of the knee.
How long does the procedure last?
USI of a joint normally lasts 15-20 minutes.
mitri.az During USI of pelvic organs in women the physician examines the urinary bladder, ovaria, uterine cavity and neck, uterine tubes. The specialist determines the location of ovaria with regard to the uterine, the size of follicles and the yellow body. Examination makes it possible to monitor the condition and development of the fetus during pregnancy, the state of the uterine after a surgery or abortus.
During USI of pelvic organs in men the physician examines the condition of the urinary bladder, spermatocysts, prostate gland. The specialist determines the size, location and form of organs, diameter of vessels, thickness of the walls, structure of tissues, speed of blood flow in vessels.
To make a correct diagnosis physicians of the institute perform USI together with other diagnostic methods. The imaging makes it possible to detect diseases at an early stage and begin treatment in proper time. Types of USI of pelvic organs:
Transabdominal. Performed in men and women. Pelvic organs are examined with an ultrasound sensor through the anterior abdominal wall. The urinary bladder should be full. Transvaginal. Performed in women with a vaginal sensor. The sensor has high scanning frequencies. Transvaginal USI gives a sharper image than transabdominal USI; the physician can view the small details of structures. This type of examination is used in case of problems with fertility. The urinary bladder should be empty. Transvaginal USI of pelvic organs is prohibited for virgins and women after gynecological surgeries.
Transrectal. Performed with a rectal sensor. The sensor is inserted into the straight intestine against which prostate is firmly located. Transrectal USI detects small cysts, microabscesses, stones that transabdominal USI can fail to detect. Transrectal USI of pelvic organs is not recommended for patients with surgeries on the straight intestine, acute hemorrhoid, chronic cracks of the sphincter and intestinal obstruction.
When is USI of pelvic organs performed?
Women should undergo USI of pelvic organs in case of pain in the lower belly, bleeding, menstrual disorders, suspected uterine myoma, endometriosis, inflammation. Imaging is performed in order to select contraceptives, in case of mammary gland diseases, possible pregnancy, before and after abortus. USI helps determine ovarian cysts and other diseases at an early stage.
Men should undergo USI in case of frequent or painful urination, stomach aches, renal colic, blood admixture in urine. Even if you do not suffer from pain we recommend examining pelvic organs at least once a year. What can USI of pelvic organs detect?
It makes it possible to diagnose:
  • Ovarian cysts;
  • Uterine fibroids;
  • Pelvic cavity tumours;
  • Ovarian, uterine or prostate cancer;
  • Polyps ;
  • Kidney stones;
  • Diseases of the urinary tracts.
How should you prepare for USI of pelvic organs?
You should keep diet before transabdominal USI during 2-3 days. Don’t eat rye bread, milk products, fruits and vegetables, don’t drink carbonated and alcohol drinks, juice. Take a tablet of “Festal” or “Mezym” each time after meal. The imaging is performed on an empty stomach at least 6 hours after the meal. 2–3 hours before the examination drink one litre of water and don’t empty the urinary bladder before the USI.
Transabdominal USI is performed on the 5th–6th day of the cycle in women. Before transrectal USI you keep diet for 2–3 days the same as before transabdominal USI. It is better to undergo the examination in the morning on an empty stomach. The last meal should be at 6 pm on the previous day. You should do cleansing syringing before going to sleep. Transrectal USI is performed with your urinary bladder full: drink 3–4 glasses of water one hour before the examination and don’t go to the toilet.
Transvaginal examination does not require any preparation.
How is the procedure performed?
In case of transabdominal USI the patient lies down on the bed with his/her face up. A gel is applied on the belly to improve the transfer of ultrasound waves. The physician moves the sensor and examines the organs under concern.
In case of transrectal or tranvaginal USI, the physician puts a condom on the sensor, applies a gel and carefully inserts the sensor into the straight intestine or vaginal cavity.
How long does the procedure last?
USI of pelvic organs normally lasts 15-25 minutes.
mitri.az USI of vessels of the lower extremities is a method that makes it possible to show the vessels graphically and evaluate the parameters of their state. To analyze the characteristics of the blood flow the property of an ultrasound wave to visualize when reflecting from moving blood corpuscles is used. The method is called Doppler velocimetry or Doppler imaging.
The equipment used in our institute makes it possible to create an uninterrupted image of vessels in the lower extremities along their entire length. Here both real time mode and Doppler imaging of the blood flow are used taking into account its recurrence, velocity and turbulence.
Physicians recommend ultrasound imaging of vessels of the lower extremities in the following cases:
  • Swelling in legs especially if it appears in the evening;
  • Visible protuberant varicosities;
  • Cramps in legs;
  • If pregnancy is complicated with protuberant varicosities on legs, swelling, pains;
  • Pain in legs especially when local or general temperature increases;
  • Change in the colour of the skin on legs.
  • Trophic ulcers of the lower extremities.
  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • If you suffer from elevated blood pressure regardless of the cause;
  • If you feel pain in your legs when walking;
  • Pain in the legs at night especially if you feel better when you hang them down from the bed;
  • If you suffer from excessive body weight;
  • Smoking ;
  • If legs become cold even under normal ambient temperature;
  • History of myocardial infarction;
  • Surgical history on vessels of legs;
  • Increased level of cholesterol in the blood;
  • People after the age of 50, with endocrine diseases.
How should you prepare for USI of vessels of lower extremities?
Ultrasound imaging of vessels of the lower extremities does not require any preparation, special diet or discontinuation of drugs used to cure your arteries and veins. If you wear compression garments you should take them off while under examination.
How is the procedure performed?
The examination of vessels is first performed in the lying position with legs bent at knees. Then the physician should examine the vessels in the standing position of the patient. Before the examination a special gel is applied on legs to avoid disturbances caused by air that gets under the sensor. The gel improves the contact between the sensor and your skin. The physician moves the sensor and examines the blood supply in the lower extremities; during the procedure he also manually selects ultrasound radiation frequency depending on the depth of vessels and the required level of detail. The frequency of 6-12 Megahertz is most usually used. Deep veins are examined with low frequency sensors.
How long does the procedure last?
USI of a joint normally lasts 20-40 minutes.
mitri.az A normal thyroid gland is usually 18 ml in volume in women, and 25 ml in men. Of course this size of the thyroid gland is not absolute and can differ. A conclusion on the size of the thyroid gland is made by the physician who performs USI and the endocrinologist. Besides the size of the thyroid gland the physician also examines its state. A normal thyroid gland has a uniform, homogeneous structure without focuses and indurations. Thus, ultrasound imaging of the thyroid gland shows the size of the organ, its outlines, boundaries, presence of structural impairments (indurations, cysts, adenomas). The ultrasound apparatus can detect even the slightest changes or neoplasms in the thyroid gland. Nodules or focuses 1-2 mm in size will not remain unnoticed. The indicators of USI of the thyroid gland are length, width, height; they are used to determine the volume of the organ. An important indicator is echoicity, in particular the uniformity of this parameter. Heterogeneity of the gland structure gives non-uniform reflection of ultrasound signal. It means that areas with different echoicity show pathologic changes in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Physicians recommend USI of the thyroid gland in the following cases:
  • Palpable or visible lesion on the neck;
  • Induration on the anterior surface of the neck;
  • Pain in the anterior or lateral surface of the neck;
  • Redness or swelling of the skin on the anterior or lateral surface of the neck;
  • Hoarseness, respiratory difficulty, difficulty in swallowing (food or water);
  • Tremor in hands;
  • Frequent or slow pulse;
  • Perceptible irregular heartbeat (or arrhythmia detected as a result of ECG);
  • General swelling of the body;
  • Fever, sweating or, on the contrary, chilliness;
  • Intensive loss of hair, nail peeling;
  • Sleepiness, apathy, tiredness, or nervousness, irritation.
What can USI of the thyroid gland detect?
  • Size of the gland
  • Uniformity or non-uniformity of its structure
  • Form of nodules
  • Swelling
How is the procedure performed?
If you are afraid of undergoing this examination for some reason, call our specialists. They will give advice on how the imaging is performed, explain everything in detail. By telephone you will be able to find out the price of USI of the thyroid gland and other information you are interested in.
The procedure is performed in the lying position, with your face up, head back and a special roller under your thoracic girdle. In case the patient has problems with the cervical spine or his/her physical state does not allow him/her to lie down correctly, ultrasound imaging can be performed in the sitting position. The physician applies a gel on a special sensor and examines the lateral, anterior surfaces of the neck.
How long does the procedure last?
USI of the thyroid gland normally lasts 15-20 minutes.
When will the results be available?
The results of the imaging will be available immediately after the examination. At our institute you will not simply receive a report with figures and a short conclusion. We can provide a consultation of the endocrinologist as well. Based on the received data he/she will assess the examination and then describe further treatment.
mitri.az Screening in the 1st trimester is a diagnostic examination of pregnant women from the 10th to the 14th weeks. Being the first of two examinations, it makes it possible to determine the risk of delivery of an ill child.
Further examination is performed for all pregnant women to confirm or deny the results of their first USI as well as in case of acute problems.
The imaging makes it possible to control the pregnancy, detect deviations and complications, monitor the development of the fetus.
Who should undergo USI screening?
  • Pregnant women from closely related couples.
  • Pregnant women with previous two or more spontaneous abortions (premature deliveries).
  • Women with previous missed abortion or dead birth.
  • Women who suffered from a virus or bacterial disease during pregnancy.
  • Women from couples with a child with Patau’s, Down’s or other syndromes
  • Women who were treated with drugs that cannot be used during pregnancy.
  • Women with relatives who suffer from genetic pathologies..
  • Pregnant women after the age of 35.
  • If both future parents want to check the likelihood of having an ill child.
What is assessed during the first USI screening in case of pregnancy?
  • Length of the embryo (it is called the parietal-coccygeal length)
  • Dimensions of the head (its circumference, biparietal diameter, distance between the forehead and the back of the head)
  • Symmetry of cerebral hemispheres, presence of some of its formations that are compulsory at the relevant stages
  • Long cylindrical bones; the length of humeri, femora, antebrachial and cnemis bones is measured
  • Whether the stomach and heart are located in the proper places
  • Dimensions of the heart and the vessels coming from it
  • Dimensions of the stomach.
What is assessed during USI screening in the second trimester?
Based on the second USI screening in case of pregnancy a conclusion is made on the presence of any developmental abnormalities in the fetus. The following is assessed:
  • The development of the embryo (it is called the parietal-coccygeal length)
  • Length of homonymous bones from each side.
  • Volume of the head, chest
  • Symmetry of cerebral hemispheres, presence of some of its formations that are compulsory at the relevant stages
  • Proportionality in the development of the cerebral ventricles and cerebellum and their conformity to the gestational age
  • Development and conformity to the gestational age of
  • The spine, facial formations full and half face
  • Nasolabial triangle and eye pits
  • Heart ventricles, atrium, large vessels (abnormalities in the development of the cardiovascular system)
  • Long cylindrical bones; the length of humeri, femora, antebrachial and cnemis bones is measured
  • Whether the stomach, kidneys and urinary bladder are at the proper developmental stage and located in the proper places.
What does the second prenatal examination show?
  • Location of placenta, thickness of placenta, its structure and maturity degree
  • Number of vessels in the navel cord
  • Amount of amniotic fluid
  • Condition of uterine neck and walls
  • Condition of uterine annexes
  • Size of the belly.
What pathologies are detected with USI screening?
  • Pathologies of the CNS anlage — the nervous tube;
  • Patau’s syndrome;
  • Omphalocele – embryonal hernia when different number of internal organs is located not inside the abdominal cavity, but in the hernia sac over the skin;
  • Down’s syndrome;
  • triploidy (triple chromosome set instead of double);
  • Edwards’ syndrome
  • Smith-Opitz syndrome
  • De Lange syndrome

How should you prepare for an examination in case of pregnancy?
Note that within the first trimester screening, blood sample is time taken from a vein for biochemical analysis. At first, USI is performed.
If it is transvaginal, it requires no preparation.
If it is transabdominal, the urinary bladder should be full. You should drink half litre of water half an hour before the imaging. By the way, the second screening in case of pregnancy is performed transabdominally but without any preparation.
If you plan to undergo ultrasound diagnostics, you should refrain from fat and fried food (1-3 days before the examination), go to the toilet in the morning on the day of the examination, and then either not to urinate 2-3 hours before the procedure or drink half litre of water without gas an hour before the procedure.
How is the procedure performed?
USI screening in case of pregnancy can be performed either transvaginally or transabdominally. Usually it is performed transvaginally. To perform the first USI screening you will have to take off your clothes below the waist, lie down on the bed with your knees bent. The physician will carefully insert a thin sensor in a condom into your vagina, during the examination the physician will slowly move the sensor. It does not hurt, however on the same or the following day you can observe small amount of blood on the hygienic pad.
In case of transabdominal imaging you either take off your clothes up to the waist, or simply lift your clothes to reveal the belly. During this USI screening in the first trimester the sensor will move along the belly without giving any pain or discomfort.
  • Safety. During USI a patient is not exposed to harmful radioactive radiation; therefore the procedure is safe for health. Pregnant women, infants and even newborns can undergo this examination.
  • Painlessness. The procedure does not bring pain and discomfort.
  • Affordability. USI is cheaper than computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Good visibility. The apparatus shows exactly the joints, vessels and surrounding tissues.
  • USI has no adverse effects.
  • You can undergo the examination as many times as required.
Physicians do not recommend USI in case of acute infections and skin diseases, large injuries; they impede the contact between the sensor and the skin.
The results will be available immediately after the examination. The physician will give advice after the procedure.
It is recommended to take the results of the previous ultrasound imaging, X-ray images, computer tomography. This will help in determining the correct diagnosis.
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